If you are setting up a Pi node on a pc in your home network, you will more than likely require port forwarding rules. This allows ports that are normally closed to be opened and allow communication between your PC and the Pi Network. The steps below are a general outline. Wording and exact process for Pi Node port forwarding will vary depending on the manufacture of your hardware.
What is Port Forwarding
Port forwarding, which is also known as port mapping, enables computers or services located within private networks to establish connections with other public or private computers or services over the internet.
Why is port forwarding important?
Port forwarding plays a crucial role in facilitating remote access to resources on private networks. Since firewalls are designed to prevent unauthorized access, it is necessary to provide a mechanism for allowing desired visitors to connect. Merely knowing the IP address is not sufficient; requests must also be directed to the correct port. This additional information helps prevent unwanted visitors and adds an extra layer of protection against DDoS attacks.
Port forwarding works seamlessly with various identity management software tools such as multi-factor authentication, single sign-on solutions, etc. These tools provide an extra layer of security for granting access to sensitive areas like file servers and databases.
Steps to follow for Pi Node Port forwarding
Find Your PC’s IP address
To find your PC’s IP address in Windows, you can follow these steps:
- Open the Start menu by clicking on the Windows icon in the bottom left corner of your screen.
- Type “cmd” in the search bar and hit Enter. This will open the Command Prompt.
- In the Command Prompt, type “ipconfig” and hit Enter.
- Scroll through the results until you find the section labeled “Ethernet adapter” or “Wireless LAN adapter,” depending on how you’re connected to the internet.
- Under the appropriate adapter section, look for the “IPv4 Address” line. This will display your PC’s IP address.
Alternatively, you can also find your PC’s IP address by going to the Windows Settings menu:
- Open the Start menu and click on the Settings icon (shaped like a gear).
- Click on “Network & Internet.”
- Click on “Wi-Fi” or “Ethernet,” depending on how you’re connected to the internet.
- Click on “Properties” under the appropriate connection.
- Under the “Properties” section, look for the “IPv4 address” line. This will display your PC’s IP address.
Disable PC Firewall (if running)
To open ports on the Windows firewall, you can follow these steps:
- Open the Windows Security app by searching for it in the Start menu.
- Click on “Firewall & network protection” from the options available.
- Choose “Advanced settings” and enter the administrator password if prompted.
- In the “Windows Defender Firewall with Advanced Security” window, click on “Inbound Rules” and then “New Rule”.
- Select the type of rule you want to create (port, program, etc.), and follow the wizard to specify the details for the rule. In this case you want to add the Pi Node application.
- When prompted, specify the port number(s) you want to open, and choose whether to apply the rule to all profiles or specific ones.
- Finish the wizard and save the new rule.
The above steps can be used as a general guideline, but the exact procedure may vary depending on the version of Windows you are using.
Login to Router
Next you will need to login to your router. Please note that the exact steps may vary depending on the make and model of your router. I made this post with many popular default router credentials.
To login to your router, you can follow these general steps:
- Connect your computer or mobile device to the router via Ethernet cable or Wi-Fi.
- Open a web browser (such as Chrome, Firefox, or Safari) and type in the router’s IP address in the address bar. The IP address can usually be found on the router itself or in the user manual.
- Enter the username and password when prompted. If you have not changed these from their default values, they can usually be found in the user manual or on the manufacturer’s website.
- Once logged in, you will be able to access the router’s settings and configuration options.
Now you need to locate the port settings for your router.
To find port settings on your router, you can follow these general steps:
- Login to your router’s web interface by typing the router’s IP address into a web browser and entering the username and password.
- Look for a menu or tab labeled “Port Forwarding” or “Port Settings”. The location of this menu may vary depending on the make and model of your router.
- Once you have located the port settings, you can view the current port settings and make changes as needed. For Pi node add TCP “31400-31409“.
- Make sure to save any changes you make before exiting the router’s settings.
Some routers may have different terminology for port settings, such as “Virtual Server” or “Applications”.
Pi Node requires the ports TCP “31400-31409” to be open, but currently only the 3 have traffic going through. Your node will running correctly if only 3 ports are open.
Test your ports
To test connectivity and that the ports for your pi node are open, you can use the below tool.
Video: Step by Step Pi Node port forwarding